By André Leblanc (auth.)
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Additional info for Anatomy and Imaging of the Cranial Nerves: A Neuroanatomic Method of Investigation Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT)
Intrinsic ocular movements Anatomy and diagram ......................... 35 35 35 38 39 40 41 42 42 43 44 44 45 46 The oculomotor nerve is a motor nerve. It supplies the levator palpebrae superioris muscle and most of the oculomotor muscles except the lateral rectus (VI) and superior oblique (IV); also, via its parasympathetic fibers, the annular part of the ciliary muscle and the pupillary sphincter muscle. Paralysis may severely affect eye movements, involving both extrinsic and intrinsic ocular motility.
The optic nerve. The optic nerve traverses the orbital cavity, enters the optic canal and ends at the optic chiasm, where the nerve fibers partially cross over to form the optic tracts. These tracts terminate in the lateral geniculate body, from which arise the optic radiations; these travel towards the occipital lobe and divide into different fibers that wind round the lateral ventricle to reach the calcarine sulcus. 18 Optic nerve (II) Fig. 2. ---.... ~~f'-'IIJ'r. Medulla oblongata Optic nerve (II) 19 Anatomy Imaging COURSE - TERMINALS - COLLATERALS REGIONS EXAMINED Origin and intracranial course Examination of orbital cavity and optic canal Optic pathways: - chiasm, optic tracts - lateral geniculate body, pulvinar Imaging of third ventricle, interpeduncular and chiasmatic cisterns Cerebral cortex (occipital lobe), calcarine sulcus Imaging of occipitotemporal junction (posterior and inferior horns) with demonstration of calcarine sulcus Pathology - Hypophyseal tumors (compression of chiasm), - tumors of third ventricle (compression of optic nerves and chiasm), - meningiomata of lesser wing of sphenoid (ophthalmoplegia), - neurinoma of optic canal, - Crouzon's disease, - orbital apex syndrome (or Rollet's syndrome), - fracture of optic canal or anterior clinoid process, - major aneurysm of internal carotid artery, - ventricular tumors at occipitotemporal junction (optic radiations).
The optic tracts terminate in the lateral geniculate body (Fig. 12 a, band MRI Fig. 13 a, b), where the nerve fibers are relayed. The optic radiations arise in the lateral geniculate body (Fig. 12a) and travel towards the occipital lobe where they divide into two groups of fibers: CLINIQUE - an anterior bundle which courses round the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle to terminate in the lower lip of the calcarine sulcus (Fig. 13a), - a posterior bundle which courses round the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle to terminate in the upper lip of the calcarine sulcus.
Anatomy and Imaging of the Cranial Nerves: A Neuroanatomic Method of Investigation Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Computed Tomography (CT) by André Leblanc (auth.)