By Kathryn C. Todd and Roger F. Bufterworfh
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Additional info for Animal Models of Neurological Disorders
Output interference also explains critical phenomena that have been used to argue for effects of working-memory capacity on reasoning (Bjorklund & Harnishfeger, 1990; Reyna & Brainerd, 1989). In mental arithmetic tasks, for example, subjects are sometimes asked to add numbers to a starting number, and then to recall that original number. , Reyna, 1992). , Bjorklund & Harnishfeger, 1990; Hasher & Zacks, 1988; Hitch, 1978; Reyna, 1992; Reyna & Brainerd, 1989). Constructive Memory: Misrecognizing Gist The greater sensitivity of verbatim memory to output interference is perhaps one reason why subjects prefer to rely on gist (cf.
When subjects used a common gist representation to recognize presented and unpresented true sentences (those consistent with the meaning of presented sentences), dependency resulted. For the s a m e sentences, however, instructions to base recognition of presented sentences on v e r b a t i m memory produced independence between presented and unpresented (gist recognized) true sentences (see Table 1 for illustrative sentences). Thus, when judgments based on verbatim and gist representations, respectively, were related to one another, independence was found, but when gist was related to gist, dependency was found.
The parallels be- 46 Valerie F. Reyna TYPES OF INTERFERENCE ERRONEOUS MEMORY ORIGINAL MEMORY STORAGE FAILURE RETRIEVABILITY: CUE CONTROL VERBATIM VERBATIM NEGATIVE DEPENDENCY INDEPENDENCE GIST VERBATIM NEGATIVE DEPENDENCY INDEPENDENCE FIGURE 2. Predicted relationships between original and competing memories in suggestibility and autosuggestibility given different assumptions about the state of original memories. , original experience and misinformation). Autosuggestibility in the Class-Inclusion Paradigm Autosuggestibility has also been investigated in the context of problem solving, and there, too, it has been analyzed as gist interference with verbatim memory (Brainerd & Reyna, in press).
Animal Models of Neurological Disorders by Kathryn C. Todd and Roger F. Bufterworfh